The word “cognitive” comes from the latin “cogito” meaning “to think, ponder, consider, plan”. It is our thinking brain. It isn’t our intellectual brain, where we stuff a bunch of facts, or our autonomic brain, where our brains stuff a bunch of facts we aren’t even aware of, like when to breathe or when to make the heart pump. Cognitive development is the term educators use to describe developing the child’s ability to figure stuff out and solve problems.
Fine Motor Control: the small muscles in our hands and fingers. When a child does not develop these muscles, he cannot hold a pencil properly, or improve his penmanship, cut with scissors, hold a small paintbrush, or even thread a needle. This could also be described as “dexterity” but educators like long, confusing words better.
Large Motor Control: These are the large muscles in our bodies. The legs, specifically, but this phrase means how a child controls his body. Little kids are always falling down, banging their heads against stuff, tripping over their own feet. As they develop their large motor control, they become more coordinated. The more control, the better their posture, breathing, and overall health.